Europe and Nord Stream 2: Myths, Reality, and the Way Forward
This comprehensive analysis of Nord Stream 2 considers the commercial and political implications of the project, while offering actionable recommendations for stakeholders on both sides of the Atlantic.
Pipeline politics have long served as a key element of the Kremlin’s playbook. The Nord Stream 2 pipeline is only the latest in a series of Kremlin-backed natural gas projects aimed at undermining allied energy security and solidarity. If completed, this pipeline from Russia to Germany would challenge the principle of fair play in the market, existing regulatory protections for consumers, and the political cohesion of the transatlantic relationship. The question is: does Europe actually need Nord Stream 2?
In dissecting the Kremlin’s underlying strategy behind Nord Stream 2, the report considers how U.S. and European allies can better protect member states and partner countries from monopolistic business practices and financial subversion. Among the report’s findings: there is a compelling need for strong U.S. leadership against Nord Stream 2, greater constructive dialogue between allies, and more commercial diversification away from Russia.
Drawing on extensive inputs and consultations with U.S. and European officials and energy security experts, and utilizing newly accessible Russian and Ukrainian pipeline data, the report evaluates Kremlin influence on the European continent with an emphasis on the commercial and geopolitical dimensions of energy competition. Written by CEPA Associate Scholar Margarita Assenova, the report features concrete policy recommendations for leaders in Washington, Brussels, and other European capitals—each calibrated to strengthen the transatlantic Alliance’s energy security and economic development.